How to write an IB Biology Lab Report — Design

they waiting over the basics of a lab report for IB biology and I’m gonna do this fairly quickly moving between this document with some tips and an actual sample write up okay so you can pause it and take a look in more detail at these various parts but first of all in the beginning let’s just talk about this focus on the design aspects so this is the planning stage and I’d be provide you with we main categories for the design aspect in the future this may change but for now let’s focus on these first three and what is required to get complete and I have some extra notes down here and a few things to help make sure you don’t miss okay based on some of these criteria now one of the things that you’re gonna notice immediately is that if you just look at these three categories complete partial and not at all this is what we’ve provided ourselves but the IV provides everything that’s here and it’s very vague and all kinds of liability workshops this is one common thing that everybody always talks about it’s not exactly clear and I think they deliberately kept it gray so that there can be a lot of flexibility but then that makes it very difficult for staying consistent and moderation but here are the tips that we picked up over the years so the first thing I’m getting you find the problem and select the variables pretty clear I think but just make sure that your aim is there your aim should include the independent and the dependent variable in there it’s certainly not a bad idea to throw in the units in a mazwell in parentheses overall the controlled variables you need to make sure they’re enough controlled variables but I’ll talk about that throughout the rest of this and you have to make sure your variables are quantitatively described and so I’ve suggested that you use something I’ve given a document that looks like this it’s kind of a a planning packet if you will and the aim follow this format hypothesis will come I’ll discuss that in a second and organizing the variables into a table like this with the independent variable written here dependent variable and a list of all the controlled variables and at the right here you’ll discuss your fair testing so how are you going to be manipulating your independent variable how are you manipulating your dependent variable why are you interested in them fill that out and this is most important for each of the control variables and you can see in this example over here which of the control variables make sure you list it give the actual unit and then talk about how you are going to keep that controlled and why it’s necessary to keep that control so you can see in this Daphnia experiment there are several you should be aiming for at least five controlled variables I think it to be safe don’t forget the units of course as well okay anything else left to be underneath here do the table as I’ve just shown you the table that’s provided in the sample template include all relevant units avoid the word amount use things like volume mass the number of don’t say amount concentration can be expressed in grams per milliliter parts per million there’s various other ways that’s not concentration just make sure you have your units correct at least three control variables I’m updating that to five percentage and make sure everything is quantitative as well in the next category basically if you went through and did this table as I have suggested in detail then that should actually take care of this category designs a method for the effective control of variables because by talking about the fair testing in the how and the why columns here you know automatically going to be thinking about that and then when you write your actual your method as well you can it’ll be easier because you’ve already listed some of those things out so in your method you should try to include some of those specific things to control as well too this is a little bit short and lack of detail but from what I’ve noticed this more than makes up for the lack of detail on the method so keep that in mind you must explain how though this is all typically if you fill out the table in detail I think you should be okay here yeah anything else here don’t mention it don’t just for the why you want to control something don’t just say because it will affect my experiment and repeat that over and over again if you need to keep the light intensity constant why is that necessary talk about how changing the light intensity what effect would light intensity changing light intensity actually have on your experiment obviously if you’re doing a photosynthesis experiment and you’re trying to investigate carbon dioxide concentration obviously keeping the light intensity constant would be very important if you don’t well we all know that light is another factor that influences photosynthesis so talk about that if you could get into detail about how the light would affect that experiment and find out the last one develops a method that allows for the collection of sufficient relevant data honestly when I take a look at the data table that gives me a really good idea if this is actually happened here so what do we want to say if you don’t connect it up conduct enough trials and that’s gonna be written that’s gonna make it very difficult for you to analyze the experiment and it’s gonna make it almost impossible for you to do any kind of statistical analysis just calculating an average is not enough in my opinion and for most of the feedback that I’ve heard biology teachers as well but we’ll discuss that more in the data analysis sectional for now if you don’t have enough data to do any data analysis then perhaps you haven’t collected enough relevant data sufficient relevant data this means as the data you’re collecting actually addressing your hypothesis and your aim and your variables so be careful about that and watch out for appropriate data ranges if you’re investigating temperature effects on enzymes then is your are your temperature ranges large enough to actually you know what are we interested about in enzymes we’re also interested in what happens after we get to the good naturing range of temperatures so if you’re and if you’re talking about denaturing but you’ve only investigated a range of temperatures up to maybe 35 or 40 degrees maybe that’s not a large enough range so be careful about that as well what else to say here enough trials 5 5 5 let me add in here 5 by 5 here a lot of people a 5 by 5 what does that mean if that means 5 different readings 5 from reading so 5 different temperatures if you’re investigating and 5 repeats of each of those temperatures and so you’ll actually get quite a bit of data to be you’ll be able to at least do some kind of line graph or analysis of that and if you if you have 5 repeated trials for each of those then you could take a couple of those and analyze them to see if there’s a significant difference between them using a t-test or some other type of analysis analytical method are you really measuring the correct variable correct range of data can talked about that already the key point here is if you don’t do any trials you can’t even calculate an average if you can’t have been an average then you won’t be able to actually do any sufficient statistical analysis and that’s automatically gonna mess you up here and in the next section as well — all right if you have any questions please post them alright thank you

Process Analysis Essay

hello everybody this is Stan Blackburn and we’re talking tonight about or today depending on when we’re watching and listening this to this about process analysis essay writing so this slide depicts a worker on top of a scaffold and as we see the scaffold isn’t complete the workers connecting pieces thinking about the creation putting together the pieces to make everything fit that in essence is how this essay will form so let’s think about process analysis a process essay explains how to do something or how something occurs and an obvious example of this is writing the recipe so things we should consider when we write process analysis is how is it done what are the steps can they be broken down how are they broken down which leads us to the next question how does it happen so if you think about that and we consider it as we put together this essay we will be on our way to process analysis right we need to use chronological order chronological order is very important because in process analysis we need to know the steps that we should use in order to complete the task so chronological is key clear steps are also key clarity is extremely important when writing process analysis and you know we we want to make sure that when we write that were being clear and we also don’t want to forget that transitions in writing clear chronological steps are important so we’ll take a closer look at transitions further in this presentation so there are two kinds of process analysis we have what’s called the directional process analysis and then we also have the explanatory directional so we all need to know directions you know I love the example of that wonderful TV show home improvement where you know Tim the main character and protagonist would always get himself in a bind because he would try to put something together without using the directions and usually it ended up in a catastrophe so directional process is very important whenever I think of directional process I like to call to mind those great and helpful Home Depot books if you’ve ever seen them and Homer is the character that they use to explain projects in and out of the house I’m a project kind of guy and although I don’t really have much talent in the area of home improvement I like to think that I can do the basics and I do like to follow directions because I tend to get lost and my wife will tell you that I get lost in my own neighborhood but you know that’s another story and a tangent so let’s think about directions when we think about directional process directions enable readers to perform a process a recipe a handout and operating manual are all examples of directional and instructional type writing the subject of sentences in directional is usually U which is the odd and oddly no less often used second person point of view it’s you understood and it’s speaking directly to the reader that’s usually what we use in directional process the second is explanatory and as we see here with Albert Einstein at the great chalkboard you know he is explaining e equals mc-squared it’s an explanatory is something that you’re interested in something that you would like to learn about but however not necessarily something you actually want to perform it’s not a step by step as the directional is so we want to make sure that when we’re writing explanatory we keep that in mind with explanatory process your purpose can be to explain how something works usually the first or third person in this case not normally the you second person we see in the directional verb tense in explanatory process writing maybe in present or past depending on how whether the writer is explaining a process that takes place regularly or one that occurred in the past we need to have a plan whether we’re writing either one of the two kinds we need to have a plan for directional and we need to have a plan for explanatory our plan explains reasons for performing steps describes unfamiliar materials or equipment defines terms jargon lingo warns readers of possible problems they may encounter we want to avoid ambiguity or surprises avoid unnecessary shifts intense person voice and mood a plan is key and we want to make sure that our audience is kept in mind we want to keep the reader in mind we should always have a clear purpose and our plan should have logic it should make sense ah the great and delicious sandwich sandwich always reminds me of structure sandwiches that are really well made are structured in a way that we can all understand in a way that we can all enjoy so I’m going to use this sandwich analogy and structuring your essay when structuring an essay keep in mind a delicious sandwich as we see here it’s appealing appetizing and designed to be enjoyed top bread functions as the introduction the toppings meats cheeses all those things in the middle are the content and the bottom bread is the conclusion notice how the intro and conclusion tie all that great delicious meat condiments and toppings together unify it make it all meld into one delicious meal to be all parts worked to support the same purpose complementing each other to convey the same experience so let’s talk about the introduction which is the first part of our essay the introduction should identify the process and indicate why and under what circumstances it is to be performed it should include a thesis statement which is our focus statement that presents your topic and purpose and we’ve learned about the implied and direct thesis this would be a direct thesis the introduction also introduces whatever materials are preliminary steps may be needed you should have that in your introduction as well you should hook your reader into what you have to say maybe even give a story that sort of lays context for the process that you’re going to explain pause here to show the video on writing thesis statements ah the meet the great deli tray cheese’s beef chicken pork all those great things that make up the nutritionally sound center of the sandwich or what we look at analogously when we create the meat of our essay right the meat is the body presents one major stage of the process in each body paragraph each stage may involve several steps to provide relevant details and examples for each step the meat is the body and the body should again reflect on the introduction because your introduction as your thesis and basically what the body of the essay does is it fills out it provides muscles so to speak for the skeleton it ties directly into the thesis and each topic sentence of each body paragraph should directly tie to an idea introduced in your thesis transitions ah the glue tying together the relevant ideas and information in your essay use transitions to establish sequence chronology relationships between steps in the process transitions moreover are especially important in process writing they give movement flow to your ideas connecting essential thoughts and processes the key here is connection now things that are disconnected are difficult to follow and understand so we want to make sure that we transition and not only transition with words between sentences but also in paragraphs that we transition ideas linking sentences in the end of the paragraph sometimes help bond to the next paragraph and lead the reader into the next idea to come pause here for the transition video conclusion ah the end so conclusions are similar in a sense to the introduction what an introduction does and we bring in the ideas that we’re talking about we lay out the groundwork on our thesis but the introduction nor does is clearly lays the groundwork for the body the conclusion reflects back it restates the thesis

Writing a Lab Report

ok so I wanted to show you guys a little bit about how to write my report and so you guys have this document I’ve shared it with you and so this is how your lab report will be graded and so it has all the points breakdown adds up to 100 all kind of good stuff so title and self-explanatory abstract so an abstract is an overall summary of your entire paper so we’re going to go back and show you I’ll show you how to kind of do that introduction has all of your background information purpose and hypothesis some students like to put these three things in bowl so that it’s being out in their paper and I’m sure to find it other students just write it like a regular paragraph that’s fine whatever format you prefer a fine materials and procedure is this is usually a list of things used in the lab and the steps that you took in the lab and although I usually give you a lab procedure that I recommend some students change it along the way or make changes in like the amount of a substance that they added and so you needed any kind of changes in the procedures you need to document their in your paper results data collection this is any type of table that you take your data down and any kind of percent error calculations that you might do any kind of naughty stuff would all be in this conclusions and discussion this is where you take all that result stuff and actually think about it so results in data collection you might write a few sentences just like this is what we found kind of stuff but you’re not going to analyze it you’re going to save all analysis for the conclusion and discussion so any kind of time that you are drawing conclusions it should only be in this section of your paper it should never ever be in the results section a lot of students must set up the questions section is for new questions that you have it’s not for answering any question that is posed two in the lab all the questions that I posed to you in the lab should be answered in your conclusions and discussion discussion section this section for questions is what new questions do you have now that you’ve done this experiment we’re excited and of course grammar punctuation spelling okay so you have recently completed your a macromolecule lab and so when you go to write your paper strategy all my all my sections first and then I go back and write introduction interior that’s another word for procedures either way is fine go so your title should be a create a unique title that is explanatory but not as there is like lab one okay so we did investigating our investigation of so this is my title you might come up with something completely different some students do something a little you know cutesy that’s fine as long as it is that it is as one of its informative so the extract just looks first in my paper I’m going to just put in some City and I’m going to come back to that later your abstract should be no longer than eight sentences and it’s just an overall summary you’re not doing a whole lot of detail here you’re not giving a whole lot of information it’s just a brief snapshot of what the lab was about the introduction though is very different from an introduction that you write an english class and English you write an introduction is maybe eight sentences long it’s very brief but an introduction in a science paper is very lengthy and it explains pretty much everything about the background of the lab and so again we had background information we had and our hypothesis so in this section of the paper you should have a lot of citation and so that means that any time that you write down something that you had to find out from somewhere whether it was you found it out in class or from a book or something you should be sighting your work and so as we start off with that gun information and we talk about that macro macro molecules are carbon-based molecules you that love you ok just a scent whatever you want whatever stuff but I had to learn somewhere that macromolecules are carbon-based molecules they help their part of cells that carry out life processes and so I have to strike my book okay so APA format you have the author’s last name and a comma in the year of publication if you are exciting a website it’s somewhere but it’s the title of the website and with an author is listed and again the year of publication and so all information that you are writing down that you found somewhere else needs to be cited you will not get credit for portions of your paper that are clearly site like should be cited if you don’t actually cite them that’s plagiarism at that point and so it should just be a zero on the paper but instead i’m just going to take out off points for that section so a purpose sometimes the purpose is given to you in the lab sometimes not so sometimes you have to think about that a little bit and your head office is from texas just an observation sometimes it’s an is then statement either format is fine materials and methods adjourned you tend myself materials and you can just you know okay sometimes you didn’t quantities get it tested results you wrote a lot of these results down in your lab manual or your lab notebooks already and so if you want to take a picture of those tables and insert them there or if you want to make a photocopy you can and so you’ve already done those results and that’s fine your discussion was identical okay also in your results section I didn’t mention this earlier but I have here a data manipulation so basically sometimes you have table data that can be dressed and so changing that data from a table into a picture they’ll also be in the results section however I don’t think we have that graphing in this particular lab the discussion section is basically looks like that you all the tables from your results and your hypothesis statements and make connections between them ok so the longest parts of your paper should be the background information that should be probably about a page type and then the discussion should also be quite lengthy again about a page type materials and methods things like that that might be fairly short results depending on the length of the lab and the type of lab involves I’ll be there very amount we’re excited you should always always always cite your textbook there’s calling no labs that we will ever do that you will not set your textbook in but also to use any online resources and please be mindful about the types of online resources you use Wikipedia is not a valid source so you need to use good science sources in order to have a valid we’re excited typically I expect about three citations for lab report but again you might have more you might have less but three is usually a good number to shoot for okay so if you have questions about Oh back to the abstract so again I said that your background information is going to be about a page your discussion is going to be about a page and they’re all commenting about the connection between your results and your hypothesis so then after you’ve written your whole paper you’re going to go back to your abstract and basically quickly summarize the entire lab again no longer than eight sentences okay so hope this is kind of useful if you have questions email me okay beeping guys like